Fostering the Intellectual and Tribal Spirit: The Role of the Chief Academic OfficerMay 2nd, 2015 | By Deborah His Horse Is Thunder | Category: 26-4: Tribal College Governance, Research
Tribal colleges and universities (TCUs) play a critical role in American Indian communities. As the primary postsecondary institutions in Indian Country, TCUs served nearly 20,000 college students and over 47,000 community members in 2010 (American Indian Higher Education Consortium, 2012). Since the establishment of Navajo Community College as the first tribal college in 1968, TCUs have sought to develop their own institutional systems that incorporate culturally based leadership to serve local and regional American Indian communities.
There is one academic leadership role within the TCU environment whose importance cannot be overstated: the chief academic officer (CAO). Also referred to as the academic vice-president, academic dean, or the provost, the CAO is responsible for the development and implementation of all academic programs, including the curriculum content, assessment, instruction quality, instructional delivery methods, and so forth. The leadership of an effective CAO ensures students receive a quality educational experience that prepares them for advanced degrees and the workforce. Academic quality and effective pedagogy depend on this position.
The purpose of a college is to provide postsecondary education to students. In economic terms, the product that a college or university sells is “an education,” which is embodied by the completion of a certificate or degree program. The CAO is responsible for the overall academic integrity of an institution’s degree programs and learner outcomes. The college must meet and maintain accreditation standards, as well as respective industry standards within specific disciplines— essential duties of the CAO. In addition, CAOs have direct responsibility for the integration of a tribal college’s unique mission, ensuring that the culture(s) and language(s) of their chartering tribal government is/are incorporated throughout the curriculum.
A 2002 study found that the CAO oversees the largest budget in an institution of higher education, manages personnel processes, plays a critical role in facilities and technology planning, influences curricula, oversees strategic planning, and fills in for the chief executive officer when needed (Lambert, 2002). It is not unusual to have the CAO also serve as the accreditation liaison officer who acts as the point of contact in maintaining an effective relationship with the regional accrediting agency. Essentially, there is no aspect of the internal operations within the higher education institution that is beyond the CAO’s role and responsibilities.
The job requirements for a CAO typically include a minimum of a master’s degree from an accredited institution in a relevant discipline, evidence of increasing administrative responsibilities, and a minimum of five years of experience in higher education. The range of responsibilities is extensive and includes but is not limited to leading and developing faculty with ongoing assessment of teaching and learning, evaluating faculty performance, providing students with enriching co-curricular experiences (e.g., career and academic advising), fostering a culture of higher education on campus, achieving student retention and graduation rate goals, working closely with the registrar in scheduling classes and establishing the academic calendar, developing and managing academic budgets, coordinating commencement, and overseeing the college catalog and faculty handbook (Chronicle of Higher Education, 2013).
First, and foremost, the CAO is responsible for providing the leadership to ensure quality academic programs and maintain institutional integrity. In a 2009 survey, the American Council on Education reported that 56% of CAOs believed “promoting academic quality” was the most important aspect of their job (Eckel et al., 2009, p. 8). Working collaboratively with faculty members and department chairs, the CAO must ensure a strong general education program with clear and measureable learner outcomes. In addition, every academic program offered must be clearly articulated. In each discipline, academic programs must be reviewed to ensure that all elements of the program are covered without unnecessary duplication of curriculum materials. Processes must be in place for the proposal of new programs, the development of new coursework, and the collection of data to analyze and use to improve academic offerings. Continuous improvement has become the norm within higher education and at least one accrediting body, the Higher Learning Commission, has established improvement as a guiding value in the criteria for accreditation (Higher Learning Commission, 2013).
The role of the CAO at tribal colleges is even more complex, because of the relatively small size of most TCUs. Even though a college may have just 250 students, all of these same basic responsibilities must be addressed by the CAO. There is a relatively flat administrative hierarchy within these small colleges, and generally, academic departments consist of one or two faculty members, with one of these instructors also serving as department chair. Relatively few of the tribal colleges have deans within discipline areas (e.g., dean of education) and therefore the CAO must work collaboratively and effectively throughout the college in order to complete tasks and accomplish goals. The CAO must be a strong voice within the senior leadership of the college to advocate, promote, and support academics at the institution.
It is essential for the CAO to work collaboratively with department heads, faculty members, and committees such as those that handle curriculum, instruction, and assessment. It is the CAO’s responsibility to facilitate the institutionalization of academic processes and timelines. For example, if all academic programs are to be reviewed on a three-year cycle, the CAO must schedule, record, communicate, and adhere to the review process. And the CAO must ensure that all meeting minutes are maintained and filed on a readily accessible site.
CAOs at TCUs also play a critical role in ensuring that culture and language needs are met and integrated throughout the college’s curriculum. Therefore, it is incumbent upon the CAO to be fully knowledgeable of the culture(s) and language(s) represented at his/her institution. Curricula should be offered through the lens of the tribal worldview to the greatest degree possible. Every class should be offered in a manner reflective of the values, mores, and expectations of the tribal nation that the college represents. The structure within the academic affairs division should be reflective of the tribal culture and meet the expectations of the regional accrediting agency. These are not easy requirements, as every situation needs to be analyzed within a cultural perspective. It is through engagement with the community and each individual’s own acculturation process that effective TCU leadership can be achieved. This holds true for both Native and non-Native CAOs. Tribal colleges pride themselves on the development of their tribal intellectual capital, and faculty development is an important aspect of that process. CAOs are responsible for facilitating the development of each of the faculty members teaching at their institutions— from professional development sessions on campus to supporting faculty who seek graduate degrees. This support goes beyond writing letters of reference for individual instructors. CAOs schedule classes to allow faculty time to pursue their graduate studies and research endeavors. They devote time to finding temporary or part-time replacement faculty when necessary, and they often assume some advising responsibilities.
And yet the number of employees which the CAO supervises requires a significant time commitment. It is estimated that 57% of a CAO’s time is devoted to the supervision and management of personnel (Eckel et al., 2009). For tribal colleges, the time devoted to supervision and management of personnel becomes even more complex with the necessary reliance on grant-funded projects, which may account for as much as 65% of the college’s operating revenue (Sitting Bull College, 2013). Each successfully funded grant project requires administrative oversight that ultimately falls on the shoulders of the CAO. For example, a humanities faculty member may be responsible for completing key elements in a grant-funded project, so that in addition to overseeing teaching duties, the CAO must ensure that other aspects of the instructor’s role are carried out effectively. In some cases, the CAO serves as the grant project director, which requires program reports, data collection, and other administrative responsibilities that add to the CAO’s supervisory responsibilities.