Tribal College Journal Looks Ahead to Challenges of Second DecadeSep 15th, 1999 | By mambler | Category: 11-1: 10th Anniversary Issue, Editor's Essay
Ten years ago, Paul Boyer backed his Honda up at the Sacramento Post Office dock to ship five boxes of magazines. His tiny vehicle was dwarfed by the semi-trucks also lined up at the dock, which could have easily crushed his car without ever noticing. His mission was worth the risk. He was delivering the premier issue of Tribal College Journal of American Indian Higher Education. Some skeptics scoffed at the quixotic effort, starting a new educational journal with no major university sponsors and no financial backers.
As he described that first journal, it was primitive: 24 black and white pages designed on an early Macintosh computer and with a print run of only 1,000. When the tribal colleges’ demand exceeded the supply, Boyer ordered a second printing, and the journal was fully born. On Nov. 14, 1989, the tribal college presidents on the American Indian Higher Education Consortium (AIHEC) board passed a motion to support the journal with $15,000 to cover four quarterly issues, a huge commitment for the tribal colleges but less than most magazines would spend on postage alone for a single issue. A hybrid of refereed research and journalism, the journal fit into no established and proven niche. The AIHEC board gave it the editorial independence it needed to maintain credibility, so it was not a typical in-house publication.
Boyer conceived of the magazine while touring tribal colleges to write a report on them. While visiting Navajo Community College, he learned that they wanted a television station. He assumed that the Navajos in Arizona knew that Salish Kootenai College was beginning to broadcast programs over its own TV station in Montana, but they did not. Although the tribal college presidents met frequently, there was no forum for college staff, faculty, administrators, and students to discuss their needs, successes, and evolving missions.
The journal’s history parallels that of the tribal colleges themselves. Unnoticed and chronically underfunded, they have survived. Many critics ridiculed the tribal educators who dared to conceive of tribally controlled institutions of higher learning without any firm source of funding beyond their tribes’ coffers. Yet the tribal college founders were driven by the great need. Mainstream institutions had failed to serve their students. The Indian communities would send their best and brightest away, only to see them return a few months later, discouraged and disheartened.
An article by Steven Crum in Vol. 1, N.1 of the Tribal College Journal traces the roots of tribal colleges back to American Indian scholars in the early 1900s. Recognizing that other educational institutions wanted Indian students to assimilate, the Indian scholars wanted colleges that would emphasize Indian culture. The map in the first issue showed 25 colleges, up from the six that formed AIHEC in 1973. They served 4,400 students at that time.
In 1989, Lionel Bordeaux was president of Sinte Gleska College. (He still leads what is now Sinte Gleska University). He was also the chair of the AIHEC board. In his introduction to the first issue of the journal, he wrote, “The publication of Tribal College provides us with a new means to continue our sharing and expand our circle….Through Tribal College, we hope to extend that mission not only from college to college and tribe to tribe but into the national and international educational communities where we look forward to enhancing our special and unique contributions.”
The colleges were inventing a new form of education, and the pages of the journal offered them a place to trade ideas with one another and with mainstream educators around the world. The mainstream media virtually ignored these miracles in the making. A few years ago, Tanya Ward, then president of Cheyenne River Community College, asked her faculty to incorporate culture into all their curriculum. They looked at one another in dismay until one of the instructors, Lanniko Lee, pointed to Tribal College Journal. “It’s a mentor on the desk,” she said. A writing instructor, Lee said she shaped her curriculum around upcoming themes. An issue last winter on assessment resulted in an informal network of tribal college faculty who trade ideas on this essential element of their accreditation process.
Certain articles from earlier issues (eg. Assiniboine leadership, the history of Indian education, racism in the classroom, traditional knowledge, tribal research guidelines, and Pocahontas as traitor) have become perennial favorites, still requested frequently by researchers at tribal and mainstream institutions. The journal has facilitated tribal college scholarly work by sponsoring annual meetings on curriculum development and a research conference in July 1996.
As the journal enters the new century, the board and the staff see even more challenges ahead. The growth in the number of tribal colleges and in their innovative programs presents a constant challenge. For example, five of the colleges in the consortium are developing Anishinabe curriculum. We would like to facilitate sharing that work amongst the colleges and to others when appropriate. We need more diversity of voices and art on our pages. Few of the colleges have the resources or time to report to us about their work so we are constantly expanding our network of freelance writers and photographers.
The journal has published scholarship on the Diné philosophy of learning (Paul Willeto), cultural perspectives and the nature of science (Jack Barden), and combining community building with research (Mary Hermes). There is much more that could be done to encourage groundbreaking research by tribal scholars.